for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. He believed that there was something essentially similar about the National Socialists ( Nazis ) on the one hand and the communists on the other, despite their opposite positions on the leftright axis. Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. 7 And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. For Greenberg and Jonas, ideological rigidity has "much in common with the related concepts of dogmatism and authoritarianism" and is characterized by "believing in strong leaders and submission, preferring ones own in-group, ethnocentrism and nationalism, aggression against dissidents, and control with the help of police. The second factor in such an analysis (such as Eysenck's T-factor) is the second best explanation for the spread of the data, which is by definition drawn at right angles to the first factor.
( back to text ). 3 Adhering to Values What matters even more to Weber is whether one adheres unflinchingly to his values. Thus it seems, both by default and implication, that Weber believed the political analyst could adhere to the principle of world war ii tanks essays objectivity once an value or perspective had been laid out. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. 5 Although replication of the nationalism factor was inconsistent, the finding of religionism and humanitarianism had a number of replications by Ferguson and others. According to Eysenck, members of both ideologies were tough-minded. Inglehart: traditionalistsecular and self expressionistsurvivalist edit In its issue, The Economist discussed a chart, dead link 28 proposed. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Phenomenology of Mind, the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. At other times in history relations with other powerful states has been important.